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Xeomin is a highly purified type A botulinum toxin with enhanced safety and efficacy of application for the correction of mimic wrinkles in the area of eyes and mouth, eyebrow and forehead.
Xeomin is a second-generation botulinum toxin type A drug, the great advantage of which is that it is a pure neurotoxin free of complex proteins.
The absence of complex proteins in the composition of Xeomin has a significant advantage - reduces its potential immunogenicity. Until now, not a single case of the development of serious adverse events was observed when using Xeomin.
Another advantage of Xeomin is its stability: it can be stored at room temperature for 48 months, which distinguishes it from other drugs whose storage conditions require either being in the freezer or simply in the refrigerator.
An important point in determining such remarkable properties of the drug Xeomin is its small molecular weight - 150 kDa, the lowest among the currently existing botulinum toxins, which is a very important point when injecting into the small facial muscles.
Mechanism of action
Thanks to more than half a century of research, the chemical structure of all 7 botulotokin serotypes known to date, their functions, and pharmacological properties have been thoroughly studied. Botulinum toxin type A, which is the basis of all drugs registered in Russia, including Xeomin, has been particularly well studied. The mechanism of action of botulinum toxin is very interesting: the drug penetrates into the synaptic plaque located on the muscle fiber, blocks the specific protein SNAP-25, which carries bubbles with acetylcholine (a substance without which muscle contraction is impossible), which causes a blockade of nerve impulses and, as a result, lack of muscle contraction.
The most frequent object of correction with the help of botulinum toxin injections in aesthetic dermatology is the area of the rape (glabella). This is the zone of the location of the proud muscle (m. Procerus), which starts from the nasal bone and attaches to the skin of the forehead. It is this muscle that forms the transverse folds between the eyebrows, which beautifies the appearance of men, but bothers women who want to have softer features.
In the area of the abalonee, the removal of vertical wrinkles, formed due to the activity of m, is also carried out. corrugator supercilii - eyebrow frown. Another common object of the upper part of the face is horizontal forehead wrinkles formed by the fibers of the frontal abdomen m. occipitofrontalis (m. epicranius). It should be borne in mind that an overdose of the drug or too close to the eyebrows injection can lead to ptosis (omission). Therefore, the introduction of the drug is carried out no closer than 2 cm from the eyebrow line. There is one more circumstance: in connection with the lateral spread of the fibers of the frontal muscle, asymmetrical distortion of the eyebrows or excessive lifting of one of them is possible (posture of “surprise”). In this case, make the appropriate corrective injection to lower the eyebrow.
The correction of the “crow's feet” - the grids of wrinkles localized at the lateral angle of the palpebral fissure (“crow’s feet”) - is extremely popular. Their occurrence is due to excessive contraction of the lateral part of the circular muscle of the eye - m. orbicularis oculi, and also to some extent the muscles involved in the formation of a smile - m. zygomaticus and m. risorius. To detect these wrinkles, you must ask the patient to smile actively in order to detect the “foot” (or “mesh”) of the periorbital wrinkles.
Middle and lower face, nose, lips
In this area, one often comes across a cosmetic correction of the mouth and lips. Above all, especially women, are worried about radial wrinkles around the lips, or “smoker’s lines” (“smoker’s lines”). For correction, injections are made into the circular muscle of the mouth - m. orbicularis oris.
The nasolabial folds are now replenished with the help of fillers. However, in some cases, botulinum toxin is injected directly lateral to the wing of the nose. The target muscles, as a rule, are the muscle that lifts the upper lip - m. levator labii superioris alaeque nasi and the muscle involved in the formation of a smile - mm. zigomatici.
In the nose, the object of manipulation is m, nasalis, which is involved in the formation of wrinkles on the nose - “rabbit lines”.
Tie on the neck - the most vivid and unrelenting sign of aging skin, causing so much concern to women. Botulinum toxin immediately proved to be a saving means. Vertical beams are easier to correct. Usually, do several injections in each string m. Platysma, this may be marked weakness of the muscles of the neck and a disorder of swallowing. As for the horizontal lines on the neck - the “necklace” lines, botulinum therapy is also used here, but with less success and requires the involvement of other methods.
The beginning of the therapeutic action
The therapeutic effect of BTA appears 2–3 days after administration, the peak of the therapeutic effect occurs 7–12 days later. This effect gradually decreases and muscle spasms return.
Duration of action
The therapeutic effect of botulinum toxin is temporary when administered in small doses, and therefore the muscle contraction is gradually restored. Although the binding of toxin is irreversible, recovery occurs due to the growth of new nerve endings and the creation of new neuromuscular compounds. This circumstance explains the temporary effect of therapeutic doses, which lasts from 3 to 6 months.
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